In America, a cop can pull you over if you go through a Yellow light if it looks like you had enough time to stop for it, and any driver's ed class will teach this.
A yellow *flashing* light means you can go through it without slowing or stopping, but just be aware of your surroundings just incase someone's coming (in my town, we have a yellow flashing light for two ways of a four-way intersection, with a red flashing for the other two)
red *flashing* is the exact same thing as a stop sign.
People who don't know how to get into a traffic circle/roundabout/whatever crack me up, though. My driver's ed teacher made sure to teach us how because the town of my high-school has one of the biggest cluster-fuck rotaries around. So many people think you need to stop if a car is in the roundabout, but if you have room to go in, GO IN. It's a yield sign, not a stop sign. If there's room, don't make the line of cars behind you wait while you're being a scared pussy haha, when I went to college, all of my friends would freak out anytime I'd enter the traffic circle without stopping first, and it's like the easiest one I've ever even seen lol
Another observation: I don't think that many people realize this, but it's actually illegal (at least in many states) to drive in the far left lane as a travel lane. You can only go in if you're passing somebody.
SO many people don't realize that you can't take a right-on-red at a red arrow, too. I've had people flip at me for sitting at the light haha
But after doing some quick research, something I don't really do as I mostly drive with common sense. I would stop at a red arrow and wait until green. I havent found official documents, but each state is different and some states allow turning on red arrow...