Male - 29 Years Old
There was a ruling in the 70s or 80s that made the practice of busing illegal (the practice was intended to prevent this sort of unintentional segregation, though how effective it was is up for debate).
There's a reason that the Civil Rights Act was an act and not an amendment, and that was quite a while after Brown v Board (the scope of Brown v Board was widened to non-school segregation by the Warren court in later rulings).
The federal reserve is something I think deserves more thought as well. It's extremely hard to categorize. I want to nominate it for the next weekly discussion if no one has any other ideas.
I always find it fascinating how crippled the US insists on making unions compared to those in other countries, and how the pattern seems to be increasingly towards depriving union rights and/or favoring corporations. (The most memorable example of this in recent times to me is the reason the court dismissed the class-action suit against wal-mart brought by female employees, that it was too difficult to prove the collusion of all wal-marts to undercompensate female employees). The republicans have become very good at double-speak with phrases like right to work for bills that are nothing of the sort. Unions are also something that bear looking at more in-depth than we typically do on the boards, they have a very complex history and a unique place in politics. (They're also something that non-US users would have input on).
Those are more controversial topics than this current one, but not in a bad way. (As long as the discussion goes beyond "THE FEDERAL RESERVE AND UNIONS SHOULD NOT EXIST")
|When the Federal Reserve act was passed in 1913, the now-governing Democrats and the newly elected Democratic president—the extreme racist Woodrow Wilson—claimed that the Federal Reserve Act had not created a central bank. The Democrats claimed that instead of creating a Third Bank of the United States, the Federal Reserve Act created 12 Federal Reserve Banks, none of them an actual central bank. The U.S. was divided into 12 districts, each with its own Federal Reserve bank that was and still is owned by the commercial banks in its district.|
You sometime hear complaints from right-wing demagogues that the Federal Reserve that issues U.S. currency is “privately owned.” The 12 Federal Reserve banks that issue paper dollar bills are indeed privately owned—owned by the commercial banks in their districts. When the Federal Reserve System was first created, the commercial banks in each district were encouraged to deposit their individual gold reserves with their district Federal Reserve Bank. In addition, the legislation created a Federal Reserve Board—now officially called the Board of Governors but still commonly referred to by it original name—located in Washington, D.C.
This board supervises the 12 commercial bank-owned regional Federal Reserve banks. Unlike the Federal Reserve banks, the Federal Reserve Board is a government body. Its members are appointed by the U.S. president with the consent of the Senate for fixed terms. The current chairman is Ben Bernanke, who before his Federal Reserve career was a professor of economics at Princeton University. Bernanke, a Republican, was originally appointed by President George W. Bush and then reappointed by Democratic president Barack Obama.
In addition, the Federal Reserve banks do not have equal power. The most powerful by far is the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, located in lower Manhattan near Wall Street. The bulk of the central banking operations carried out by the Federal Reserve System are actually carried out by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. This bank is owned by the New York “money center” banks headquartered on or near Wall Street.
Current U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner was previously head of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. This shows how the Federal Reserve System—especially the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, which towers over the other 11 Federal Reserve banks—the U.S. Treasury Department, and the Wall Street “money center” banks are all closely intertwined forming the real central banking system.
Here we see the complete interpenetration of government and private capital. It is virtually impossible to see where, within this central banking complex, private capital ends and government begins. The 12 commercial bank-owned Federal Reserve banks issue the U.S. paper currency, officially called Federal Reserve Notes. If you have a U.S. one dollar bill handy, you will notice that at the top it says Federal Reserve Note. On the left hand, it states which Federal Reserve bank issued the note. This is actually a vestige of the time when individual commercial banks issued their own banknotes.
Technically, the U.S. doesn’t have one but 12 currencies—all equally legal tender for debts public and private—each issued by one of the 12 Federal Reserve banks. But this has no real significance and never did. This is indicated by the signatures of the secretary of treasury and the treasurer of the United States on the dollar bills. Indeed, all U.S. currency has been backed up by the credit of the U.S. Treasury since the days of the National Banking System, giving the U.S. a single unified currency.
The Federal Reserve banks also act as the fiscal agents of the United States Treasury. They manage the sale, redemption and payments of interest on the types of IOUs that the U.S. Treasury issues when it borrows money—which it does quite a bit these days. In addition, the government keeps checking accounts with Federal Reserve banks. When the Treasury sends you a check for a tax refund, for example, the check is drawn by the U.S. Treasury against its checking account with one the Federal Reserve banks.